Publications

 Title: Effects of industrial processing on essential elements and regulated and emerging contaminant levels in seafood

Main Author(s): Rie Romme Rasmussen, Annette Søndergaard Bøge, Niels Bøknæs, Tommy Licht Cederberg, Jens Jørgen Sloth, Kit Granby

Title of Periodical or Series: Food and Chemical Toxicology

 Publication Date: In Press (Available online 9 February 2017)

Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p < 0.05), however interaction between seasons and processing was observed. Non-toxic organic arsenic in raw Greenland halibut (N = 10) and salmon (N = 4) did not transform to carcinogenic inorganic arsenic during industrial cold smoking. Hence inorganic arsenic was low (<0.003 mg/kg wet weight) in both raw and smoked fillets rich in organic arsenic (up to 9.0 mg/kg for farmed salmon and 0.7 mg/kg for wild caught Greenland halibut per wet weight). Processing salmon did not significantly change any levels (calculated both per wet weight, dry weight or lipid content). Cold smoking decreased total arsenic (17%) and increased PCB congeners (10-22%) in Greenland halibut (wet weight). However PFOS, PCB and PBDE congeners were not different in processed Greenland halibut when corrected for water loss or lipid content.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28189477 

 

Title: Exploration of the phycoremediation potential of Laminaria digitata towards diflubenzuron, lindane, copper and cadmium in a multitrophic pilot-scale experiment

Main Author(s): Patrícia Anacleto, Freek H.M. van den Heuvel, C. Oliveira, Rie R. Rasmussen, José O. Fernandes, Jens J. Sloth, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo N. Alves, António Marques

Title of Periodical or Series: Food and Chemical Toxicology

Publication Date: In Press (Available online 1 February 2017)

The presence of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems can cause serious problems to the environment and marine organisms. This study aims to evaluate the phycoremediation capacity of macroalgae Laminaria digitata for pesticides (diflubenzuron and lindane) and toxic elements (cadmium and copper) in seawater in the presence or absence of mussels. The photosynthetic activity was monitored in the macroalgae to assess its "physiological status". The results showed that the presence of algae decreased diflubenzuron concentration in mussels by 70% after 120 h of exposure. Additionally, this macroalgae was efficient to reduce lindane, Cu and Cd in seawater; even though it not was able to reduce these contaminants in mussels. The studied pollutants did not affect the physiological status of macroalgae. This study reveals that the application of phycoremediation with macroalgae can be an useful and effective mitigation strategy to remove/decrease contaminant levels from the aquatic environment.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691517300376 

 

Title: Multi-residue method for the determination of antibiotics and some of their metabolites in seafood

Main Author(s): Albert Serra-Compte, Diana Álvarez-Muñoz, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, Damià Barceló

Title of Periodical or Series: Food and Chemical Toxicology

Publication Date: In Press (Available online 28 November 2016)

The presence of antibiotics in seafood for human consumption may pose a risk for consumers. A methodology for the analysis of antibiotics in seafood based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extraction, followed by detection and quantification using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed. The analytical method was evaluated for the determination of 23 antibiotics (including parent compounds and some metabolites) in fish, mussels and clams. Recoveries ranged between 30% and 70% for most of the compounds and method detection and quantification limits (MDLs and MQLs) were between 0.01-0.31 ng/g dry weigh (dw) and 0.02-1.03 ng/g (dw) respectively. Real seafood samples were analysed using this method. Nine antibiotics were found at levels above MDLs; however none of them exceed the maximum residue limits (MRL) established by the authorities. Tetracycline was the most ubiquitous compound, presenting also the highest concentration: 5.63 ng/g (dw) in fish from Netherlands. In addition, an alternative technique based on microbial growth inhibition was explored as semiquantitative detection method of antibiotics in seafood. This methodology could be applied as a fast screening technique for the detection of macrolides and β-lactams in seafood but further research is needed for other antibiotics families.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691516304495 

 

Title: Occurrence and toxicity of musks and UV filters in the marine environment

Main Author(s): Rainieri S, Barranco A, Primec M, Langerholc T

Title of Periodical or Series: Food and Chemical Toxicology

Publication Date: In Press (Available online 12 November 2016)

Emerging chemical contaminants in the marine ecosystem represent a threat to the environment and also to human health due to insufficient knowledge about their toxicity and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Consequently, many of them are not regulated. In this review we focus on musks and organic UV filters. For both groups of compounds we describe occurrence in the marine environment, toxic effects identified so far and methods used to identify such effects. The final objective of this work is to identify gaps in the understanding of their toxicology.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691516304197 

 

Title: Occurrence of halogenated flame retardants in commercial seafood species available in European markets

Main Author(s): Òscar Aznar-Alemany, Laura Trabalón, Silke Jacobs, Vera Liane Barbosa, Margarita Fernández Tejedor, Kit Granby, Christiaan Kwadijk, Sara C. Cunha, Federico Ferrari

Title of Periodical or Series: Food and Chemical Toxicology

Publication Date: In Press (Available online 24 December 2016)

PBDEs (congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209), HBCD (α, β, γ), emerging brominated flame retardants (PBEB, HBB and DBDPE), dechloranes (Dec 602, 603, 604, syn- and anti-DP), TBBPA, 2,4,6-TBP and MeO-PBDEs (8 congeners) were analysed in commercial seafood samples from European countries. Levels were similar to literature and above the environmental quality standards (EQS) limit of the Directive 2013/39/EU for PBDEs. Contaminants were found in 90.5% of the seafood samples at n. d.-356 ng/g lw (n. d.-41.1 ng/g ww). DBDPE was not detected and 2,4,6-TBP was detected only in mussels, but at levels comparable to those of PBDEs. Mussel and seabream were the most contaminated species and the Mediterranean Sea (FAO Fishing Area 37) was the most contaminated location. The risk assessment revealed that there was no health risk related to the exposure to brominated flame retardants via seafood consumption. However, a refined risk assessment for BDE-99 is of interest in the future. Moreover, the cooking process concentrated PBDEs and HBB.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691516304951 

 

Title: Risk assessment of methylmercury in five European countries considering the national seafood consumption patterns

Main Author(s): Silke Jacobs, Isabelle Sioen, Liesbeth Jacxsens, José L. Domingo, Jens J. Sloth, António Marques, Wim Verbeke

Title of Periodical or Series: Food and Chemical Toxicology

Publication Date: In Press (Available online 27 October 2016)

Although seafood is a nutritious protein source, due to marine environmental pollution, seafood may also be a source of contaminants. The results obtained within the FP7-ECsafeSEAFOOD-project show that among the range of studied environmental contaminants certainly methylmercury (MeHg) requires deeper investigation. This paper presents the results of a probabilistic risk assessment for MeHg based on: (1) primary concentration data, as well as secondary data from published papers, and (2) primary species-specific consumption data collected in five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). The results indicated that in the southern European countries, larger subgroups of the population (up to 11% in Portugal) are potentially at risk for a MeHg exposure above the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) value, while this risk is much lower in Ireland and Belgium. This research confirms the substantial contribution of tuna to MeHg exposure in each of the countries. Also hake, cod, sea bream, sea bass and octopus are identified as important contributors. From this study, it is concluded that a country-specific seafood consumption advice is needed. Policy makers may adopt the results of this study in order to develop consumer advices that optimise health benefits versus potential health risks by providing species-specific information.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691516303970 

 

Title: Immunorecognition magnetic supports for the development of an electrochemical immunoassay for azaspiracid detection in mussels

Main Author(s): Sandra Leonardo, Maria Rambla-Alegre, Ingunn A. Samdal, Christopher O. Miles, Jane Kilcoyne, Jorge Diogène, Ciara K. O'Sullivan, e, Mònica Campàs

Title of Periodical or Series: Biosensors and Bioelectronics

Publication Date: June 2017

As azaspiracids (AZAs) are being reported from the coastal waters of an increasing number of countries on a global scale, the need for rapid, simple and cost-effective methods to detect these marine toxins and protect seafood consumers' health is becoming evident. A magnetic bead (MB)-based direct immunoassay for the detection of AZAs, using protein G-coated MBs as supports for antibody immobilisation and peroxidase-labelled AZA as a tracer is detailed. A colorimetric approach was first developed to optimise the experimental parameters and establish the cross-reactivity factors for AZA-1-10. The subsequent combination of the immunorecognition MBs with 8-electrode arrays enabled the multiplexed electrochemical detection of AZAs. Naturally-contaminated mussel samples were analysed and the results obtained showed an excellent correlation with LC-MS/MS analysis. The MB-based immunoassay facilitated the quantification of a wide range of AZA concentrations (120-2875μg AZA-1 equiv./kg), with a limit of detection (63μg AZA-1 equiv./kg) below the European regulatory threshold, using a protocol that requires very few steps and a short analysis time (~ 15min). The simplicity, cost-effectiveness, rapidity, robustness, selectivity and precision of the assay provide a valuable tool for the detection of all regulated AZAs and other toxic AZA analogues, suitable for end users in the field of food safety.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956566317301021

 

Title: Toxic effects of perfluorinated compounds at human cellular level and on a model vertebrate.

Main Author(s): Sandra Rainieri, Nadia Conlledo, Toma┼ż Langerholc, Eneko Madorran, Martin Sala, Alejandro Barranco

Title of Periodical or Series: Food and Chemical Toxicology

Publication Date: March 2017

This work aims at deepening the understanding of the mode of action of some of the most prominent perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by detecting in a realistic way their effects. To this end, after adjusting the exposure media taking into account the biological model employed and the physico-chemical properties of PFCs, we evaluated the toxic effects of PFOA, PFOS and PFNA in a human macrophage cell line (TLT cells) and in zebrafish embryos. We performed such evaluation on individual compounds and mixtures. Acute toxicity was greater for PFOS in zebrafish; however, it was greater for PFNA in TLT cells. PFNA was also the compound producing the greatest levels of oxidative stress, both in zebrafish and TLT cells. Additionally, in both biological systems, it showed a much stronger effect on mixtures in comparison to the others PFCs tested in this work. Mixture studies in zebrafish showed that acute toxicity depended on the concentration and that the mixture was far more toxic than the individual compounds. This study highlights the importance of studying PFCs in realistic conditions on various biological models.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691517300935 

 

Title: Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood

Main Author(s): Ricardo N. Alves, Ana L. Maulvault, Vera L. Barbosa, Sara Cunha, Christiaan J.A.F. Kwadijk, Diana Álvarez-Muñoz, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, Òscar Aznar-Alemany,Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló, Margarita Fernandez-Tejedor, Alice Tediosi, António Marques

Title of Periodical or Series: Food and Chemical Toxicology.

Publication Date: February 2017

A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, α-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylparaben and UV-filter OC) was performed in seafood species available in the European markets. Additionally, the effect of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility was also investigated for the first time. Overall, steaming affected differentially contaminants' concentrations, for instance, decreasing PFOS levels in flounder, but increasing both BDE47 and BDE100. CeCs bioaccessibility varied according to seafood species and contaminant group, i.e. in general, lower bioaccessibility values were obtained for PBDEs (<70%, except for mackerel), while PFCs and PPCPs revealed higher bioaccessibility percentages (between 71 and 95%). The lowest bioaccessibility value was obtained for α-HBCD (mussel; 14%), whereas the highest percentage was observed in venlafaxine (mullet; 95%). Our preliminary study reports also, for the first time, the effects of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility. In most cases, bioaccessibility was not affected by cooking, however, a decrease was observed in PBDEs and venlafaxine bioaccessibility in steamed mussels and mullet, respectively, thus lowering the potential health risks associated with seafood consumption.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28202359

 

Title: Health risk/benefit information for consumers of fish and shellfish: FishChoice, a new online tool

Main Author(s): Vilavert L, Borrell F, Nadal M, Jacobs S, Minnens F, Verbeke W, Marques A, Domingo JL.

Title of Periodical or Series: Food and Chemical Toxicology

Publication Date: February 2017

It is well known that due to the content in omega-3 fatty acids, consumption of fish and shellfish is beneficial for human cardiovascular health. However, a number of recent studies have shown that fish consumption may be also a potential dietary source of exposure to various environmental pollutants with well-known potential adverse effects on human health. Moreover, there is still a lack of information regarding levels of emerging contaminants in fish and shellfish, in particular among consumers and stakeholders. Within the ECsafeSEAFOOD FP7 project, a wide variety of emerging contaminants including brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, perfluoroalkyl substances, musk fragrances, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, UV-filters and endocrine disruptors, as well as inorganic arsenic and methylmercury, were analyzed in fish and shellfish samples collected all over the European Union. These data, together with those regarding nutrient concentrations from different European food composition databases, were integrated into a new online tool, called FishChoice. In this paper, we report how FishChoice was designed and present its main improvements compared to previous tools or software programs, in terms of selected pollutants, number of species, and specific recommendations for an optimal consumption of fish and shellfish.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28174114

 

Title: Development of QuEChERS-based extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A in seafood: fish, bivalves, and seaweeds

Main Author(s): Sara C. Cunha Cátia OliveiraJosé O. Fernandes

Title of Periodical or Series: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

Publication Date: January 2017

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in different seafood samples was developed and validated. Sample preparation was based on a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based procedure through an extraction of target analytes with acidified acetonitrile (MeCN) added with inorganic salts (MgSO4, NaCl) followed by a liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) using hexane-tertbutylmethyl ether/hexane-benzene to eliminate matrix co-extracts. The developed method promotes a better removal of interferences than that achieved with the classic QuEChERS procedure. The method was validated following the guidelines of the European Union (EU) for relevant seafood matrices such as fish, mussel, and seaweed. Accuracy (81 % average of recovery), reproducibility (12 % average relative standard deviation for both intra-day and inter-day repeatability), and sensitivity for the target analytes (method detection limits of 0.07 ng/g wet weight (ww) and 0.06 ng/g ww for BPA and TBBPA, respectively) were evaluated for all the matrices studied.

Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00216-016-9980-3 

 

Title: Human exposure to brominated flame retardants through the consumption of fish and shellfish in Catalonia (Spain)

Main Author(s): Laura Trabalón, Lolita Vilavert, José L. Domingo, Eva Pocurull, Francesc Borrull, Martí Nadal

Title of Periodical or Series: Food and Chemical Toxicology

Publication Date: November 2016

The concentrations of 19 brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 8 methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and 3 emerging flame retardants) were determined in 10 species of fish and shellfish widely consumed in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), by pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. A higher occurrence of PBDEs was found in all the analyzed samples, while MeO-PBDEs were only detected in a few ones and the levels of emerging pollutants were relatively low. In contrast, hexabromobenzene was found in almost all samples at concentrations ranging between non detected and 0.2 ng g−1 wet weight (w.w.). Salmon, sole, hake, cod and tuna showed the highest concentrations of ΣPBDEs (>0.8 ng g−1 w.w.), while mussel was the species with the highest level of MeO-PBDEs (1.5 ng g−1 w.w.). The dietary exposure of BFRs through consumption of these 10 species of fish and shellfish by the population of Tarragona County was estimated for different subpopulations, classified according to age and gender. Furthermore, calculations were performed in upper-, middle- and lower-bound risk scenarios. According to our data, the current concentrations of BFRs in fish and shellfish suggest no significant health risks for the consumers.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691516304380

 

Title: Effects of dietary microplastic exposure on the organ toxicity of a mixture of chemical contaminants in zebrafish

Main Author(s): Sandra Rainieri, Nadia Conlledo; Bodil Katrine Larsen; Kit Granby, Alejandro Barranco

Effects of dietary exposure to microplastic and chemical contaminants on the organ toxicity of an aquatic animal model.

Title of Periodical or Series: Toxicology Letters

Publication Date: September 2016

  • Biological system used: zebrafish (Danio rerio) adult fish.
  • Exposure protocol based on evaluation of: stability, solubility and uptake of the compounds.
  • Biological effects detected by microscopic observation, histopathology and evaluation of gene expression in different organs.
  • Major effects were detected on the liver.

Link: http://orbit.dtu.dk/files/127858847/EUROTOX_2016_300816.pdf

 

Title: Habitat selection disruption and lateralization impairment of cryptic flatfish in a warm, acid, and contaminated ocean

Main Author(s): Eduardo Sampaio, Ana Luísa MaulvaultVanessa M. LopesJosé R. PaulaVera BarbosaRicardo AlvesPedro Pousão-FerreiraTiago RepolhoAntónio MarquesRui Rosa

Title of Periodical or Series: Marine Biology

Publication Date: September 2016

Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases is leading to significant changes in ocean physicochemical properties. Although marine organisms will have to deal with combined effects of ocean warming and acidification, little is known about the impact of interactions between these climate change variables and contaminants. Nowadays, mercury emissions are mostly of anthropogenic origin, and part of these emissions is deposited in the ocean sediment. Within this context, our goal was to determine the acclimation potential of a benthic flatfish, Solea senegalensis, to future climate change scenarios and methylmercury (MeHg) neurotoxicity. After 28 days of exposure under three-factor crossed treatments of MeHg contamination (non-contaminated and contaminated feed, 0.08 ± 0.02 and 8.51 ± 0.15 mg kg−1 dry weight, respectively), high CO2 (ΔCO2 ≈ 500 ppm), and temperature (ΔT = 4 °C), we investigated brain mercury accumulation, habitat preference, and relative/absolute lateralization, as well as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in five brain regions. Our results indicate a differential effect of hypercapnia (decrease) on brain mercury accumulation. MeHg-contaminated flatfish displayed decreased AChE activity, impaired lateralization, and bottom choosing judgment. Contaminated fish spent significantly higher amounts of time in the complex habitat, where they could neither bury nor match the background. While warming led to higher enzymatic activity, acidification decreased Hg accumulation, but also affected AChE activity and disrupted habitat selection. Present-day MeHg environmental concentrations may lead to severe disruption of behavioral and neurological functions, which, combined with ocean warming and acidification, might further jeopardize the ecological fitness of flatfish.

Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00227-016-2994-8 

 

Title: Bioaccumulation and elimination of mercury in juvenile seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in a warmer environment

Main Author(s): Ana Luísa Maulvault, Ana Custódio, Patrícia Anacleto, Tiago Repolho, Pedro Pousão, Maria Leonor Nunes, Mário Diniz, Rui Rosa, António Marques

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research

Publication Date: August 2016

Warming is an expected impact of climate change that will affect coastal areas in the future. These areas are also subjected to strong anthropogenic pressures leading to chemical contamination. Yet, the consequences of both factors for marine ecosystems, biota and consumers are still unknown. The present work aims to investigate, for the first time, the effect of temperature increase on bioaccumulation and elimination of mercury [(total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg)] in three tissues (muscle, liver, and brain) of a commercially important seafood species – European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were exposed to the ambient temperature currently used in seabass rearing (18 °C) and to the expected ocean warming (+4 °C, i.e. 22 °C), as well as dietary MeHg during 28 days, followed by a depuration period of 28 days fed with a control diet. In both temperature exposures, higher MeHg contents were observed in the brain, followed by the muscle and liver. Liver registered the highest elimination percentages (EF; up to 64% in the liver, 20% in the brain, and 3% in the muscle). Overall, the results clearly indicate that a warming environment promotes MeHg bioaccumulation in all tissues (e.g. highest levels in brain: 8.1 mg kg−1 ww at 22 °C against 6.2 mg kg−1 ww at 18 °C after 28 days of MeHg exposure) and hampers MeHg elimination (e.g. liver EF decreases after 28 days of depuration: from 64.2% at 18 °C to 50.3% at 22 °C). These findings suggest that seafood safety may be compromised in a warming context, particularly for seafood species with contaminant concentrations close to the current regulatory levels. Hence, results point out the need to strengthen research in this area and to revise and/or adapt the current recommendations regarding human exposure to chemical contaminants through seafood consumption, in order to integrate the expected effects of climate change.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116301591

 

Title: Ostreopsis cf. ovata from western Mediterranean Sea: Physiological responses under different temperature and salinity conditions

Main Author(s): Olga Carnicer, María García-Altares, Karl B. Andree, Luciana Tartaglione, Carmela Dell’Aversano, Patrizia Ciminiello, Pablo de la Iglesia, Jorge Diogène, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor

Title of Periodical or Series: Harmful Algae

Publication Date: July 2016

The dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata proliferates seasonally in the Mediterranean Sea, producing palytoxin-like compounds (ovatoxins) which are considered among the most potent marine toxins. Blooms have been related to several toxic events in which respiratory problems in humans and mortality of benthic marine organisms have been observed. In the coming decades, an increase in temperature and salinity is predicted in the Mediterranean Sea as a consequence of global warming that may provoke alterations in the dynamics of marine microorganisms. In this study, the physiological effects of changes in water temperature and salinity were analyzed, and their interaction through a multi-factorial experiment using two strains of O. cf. ovata in culture that had been isolated from the western Mediterranean Sea. In order to perform an accurate and reliable estimation of cell abundance, hydrochloric acid and sodium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid treatments were evaluated for the purpose of disaggregating cell clumps, with the former providing lower counting errors, especially after the stationary phase. Results of the physiological study showed that growth was inhibited at 19 °C for all salinities. The highest growth rates were registered at 24 °C for both strains (0.48 ± 0.05 div day−1), and a significant variability in growth rate was found among salinities at 24 °C and 28 °C. Two groups were distinguished by cell size in all high temperature conditions and a positive correlation was found between the amount of small cells and growth rate. The concentration of palytoxin-like compounds in the cultures increased with time and significantly higher amounts of toxin were found at 28 °C in comparison to 24 °C. The results suggest that climate change may not affect intensity of blooms, but their toxicity may be enhanced.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568988315301712

 

Title: Identification of gymnodimine D and presence of gymnodimine variants in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea.

Main Author(s): Kirsi Harju, Harri Koskela, Anke Kremp, Sanna Suikkanen, Pablo de la Iglesia, Christopher O. Miles, Bernd Krock, Paula Vanninen 

Title of Periodical or Series: Toxicon

Publication Date: March 2016

Gymnodimines are lipophilic toxins produced by the marine dinoflagellates Karenia selliformis and Alexandrium ostenfeldii. Currently four gymnodimine analogues are known and characterized. Here we describe a novel gymnodimine and a range of gymnodimine related compounds found in an A. ostenfeldii isolate from the northern Baltic Sea. Gymnodimine D (1) was extracted and purified from clonal cultures, and characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) experiments. The structure of 1 is related to known gymnodimines (2-5) with a six-membered cyclic imine ring and several other fragments typical of gymnodimines. However, the carbon chain in the gymnodimine macrocyclic ring differs from the known gymnodimines in having two tetrahydrofuran rings in the macrocyclic ring.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26829651

 

Title: Effects of Heating on Proportions of Azaspiracids 1−10 in Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Identificationm of Novel Carboxylated Analogues

Title of Periodical or Series: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Publication Date:December 2015

Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins that induce human illness following the consumption of contaminated shellfish. European Union regulation stipulates that only raw shellfish are tested, yet shellfish are often cooked prior to consumption. Analysis of raw and heat-treated mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs revealed significant differences (up to 4.6-fold) in AZA1–3 (1– 3) and 6 (6) values due to heat-induced chemical conversions. Consistent with previous studies, high levels of 3 and 6 were detected in some samples that were otherwise below the limit of quantitation before heating. Relative to 1, in heat-treated mussels the average (n = 40) levels of 3 (range, 11–502%) and 6 (range, 3–170%) were 62 and 31%, respectively. AZA4 (4) (range, <1–27%), AZA5 (5) (range, 1– 21%), and AZA8 (8) (range, 1–27%) were each ∼5%, whereas AZA7 (7), AZA9 (9), and AZA10 (10) (range, <1–8%) were each under 1.5%. Levels f 5, 10, AZA13 (13), and AZA15 (15) increased after heating, leading to the identification of novel carboxylated AZA precursors in raw shellfish extracts, which were shown by deuterium labeling to be precursors for 5, 10, 13, and 15.

Link: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b04609

 

Title: Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries

Main Author(s): Silke Jacobs, Isabelle Sioen, Stefaan De Henauw, Yves Rosseel, Tanja Calis , Alice Tediosi, Martí Nadal, António Marques and Wim Verbeke

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300530 

 

Title: Consumers’ health risk – benefit perception of seafood and attitude toward the marine environment: Insights from five European countries

Main Author(s): Silke Jacobs, Isabelle Sioen, Zuzanna Pieniak, Stefaan De Henauw, Ana Luisa Maulvault, Marieke Reuver, Gabriella Fait, German Cano-Sancho and Wim Verbeke

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

This research classifies European consumers into segments based on their health risk–benefit perception related to seafood consumption. The profiling variables of these segments are seafood consumption frequency, general attitude toward consuming fish, confidence in control organizations, attitude toward the marine environment, environmental concern and socio-demographics. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample of 2824 participants. A cluster analysis was performed based on risk–benefit perception related to seafood and the profiles of the segments were determined by a robust 2-way ANOVA analysis accounting for country effects. Although this study confirms consumers’ positive image of consuming seafood, gradients are found in health risk–benefit perception related to seafood consumption. Seafood consumption frequency is mainly determined by country-related traditions and habits related to seafood rather than by risk–benefit perceptions. Segments with a higher benefit perception, irrespective of their level of risk perception, show a more positive attitude toward consuming seafood and toward the marine environment; moreover, they report a higher concern about the marine environment and have a higher involvement with seafood and with the marine environment. Consequently, information campaigns concentrating on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise the involvement with seafood and the marine environment as this is associated with a higher environmental concern. This research underpins that in such information campaigns a nationally differentiated rather than a pan-European or international information strategy should be aimed for because of significant cultural differences between the identified segments.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115000638 

 

Title: Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety

Main Author(s): Alice Tediosi, Gabriella Fait, Silke Jacobs, Wim Verbeke, Diana Á lvarez-Muñoz, Jorge Diogene, Marieke Reuver, António Marques and Ettore Capri

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300141 

 

Title: Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood – European database on contaminant levels

Main Author(s): Griet Vandermeersch, Helena Maria Lourenço, Diana Alvarez-Muñoz, Sara Cunha, Jorge Diogène, German Cano-Sancho, Jens J. Sloth, Christiaan Kwadijk, Damia Barcelo, Wim Allegaert, Karen Bekaert, José Oliveira Fernandes, Antonio Marques and Johan Robbens

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood.

So-called “contaminants of emerging concern” are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed.

The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115001863 

 

Title: A critical view on microplastic quantification in aquatic organisms

Main Author(s): Griet Vandermeersch, Lisbeth Van Cauwenberghe, Colin R. Janssen, Antonio Marques, Kit Granby, Gabriella Fait, Michiel J.J. Kotterman, Jorge Diogène, Karen Bekaert, Johan Robbens and Lisa Devriese

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

Microplastics, plastic particles and fragments smaller than 5 mm, are ubiquitous in the marine environment. Ingestion and accumulation of microplastics have previously been demonstrated for diverse marine species ranging from zooplankton to bivalves and fish, implying the potential for microplastics to accumulate in the marine food web. In this way, microplastics can potentially impact food safety and human health. Although a few methods to quantify microplastics in biota have been described, no comparison and/or intercalibration of these techniques have been performed. Here we conducted a literature review on all available extraction and quantification methods. Two of these methods, involving wet acid destruction, were used to evaluate the presence of microplastics in field-collected mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from three different “hotspot” locations in Europe (Po estuary, Italy; Tagus estuary, Portugal; Ebro estuary, Spain). An average of 0.18±0.14 total microplastics g−1 w.w. for the Acid mix Method and 0.12±0.04 total microplastics g−1 w.w. for the Nitric acid Method was established. Additionally, in a pilot study an average load of 0.13±0.14 total microplastics g−1 w.w. was recorded in commercial mussels (Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis) from five European countries (France, Italy, Denmark, Spain and The Netherlands). A detailed analysis and comparison of methods indicated the need for further research to develop a standardised operating protocol for microplastic quantification and monitoring.

 Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300360 

 

Title: Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in macroalgaes, bivalves, and fish from coastal areas in Europe

Main Author(s): D. Á lvarez-Muñoz, S. Rodríguez-Mozaz, A.L. Maulvault, A. Tediosi, M. Fernández-Tejedor, F. Van den Heuvel, M. Kotterman, A. Marques and D. Barceló

Title of Periodical or Series: Enironmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

The ocurrence and levels of PhACs, Endocrine Disrupting and related Compounds (EDCs) in seafood from potential contaminated areas in Europe has been studied. Macroalgae (Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata), bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus spp., Chamalea gallina and Crassostrea gigas) and fish (Liza aurata and Platichthys flesus) from Portugal, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, and Norway were analysed following 4 different analytical protocols depending on the organism and target group of contaminants. The results revealed the presence of 4 pharmaceutical compounds in macroalgae samples, 16 in bivalves and 10 in fish. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that PhACs have been detected in marine fish and in macroalgae. Besides, this is also the first time that dimetridazole, hydrochlorothiazide and tamsulosin have been detected in biota samples. The highest levels of PhACs corresponded to the psychiatric drug velanfaxine (up to 36.1 ng/g dry weight (dw)) and the antibiotic azithromycin (up to 13.3 ng/g dw) in bivalves from the Po delta (Italy). EDCs were not detected in macroalgae samples, however, the analysis revealed the presence of 10 EDCs in bivalves and 8 in fish. The highest levels corresponded to the organophosphorus flame retardant tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP) reaching up to 98.4 ng/g dw in mullet fish from the Tagus estuary. Bivalves, in particular mussels, have shown to be good bioindicator organisms for PhACs and fish for EDCs. Taking into consideration the concentrations and frequencies of detection of PhACs and EDCs in the seafood samples analysed, a list of candidates’ compounds for priorization in future studies has been proposed.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300852 

 

Title: Co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in seafood and macroalgae collected in European hotspots

Main Author(s): S.C. Cunha , J.O. Fernandes , L. Vallecillos , G. Cano-Sancho , J.L. Domingo , E. Pocurull , F. Borrull , A.L. Maulvault , F. Ferrari , M. Fernandez-Tejedor , F. Van den Heuvel and M. Kotterman

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

In the last decades, awareness regarding personal care products (PCP), i.e. synthetic organic chemicals frequently used in cosmetic and hygienic products, has become a forward-looking issue, due to their persistency in the environment and their potential multi-organ toxicity in both human and wildlife. Seafood is one of the most significant food commodities in the world and, certainly, one of the most prone to bioaccumulation of PCP, what can consequently lead to human exposure, especially for coastal population, where its consumption is more marked. The aim of this work was to evaluate the co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in both seafood and macroalgae collected in different European hotspots (areas with high levels of pollution, highly populated and near wastewater treatment plants). Despite the fact that UV-filters were detected in three different kind of samples (mussel, mullet, and clam), in all cases they were below the limit of quantification. Galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the musk fragrances most frequently detected and quantified in samples from the European hotspots. Cashmeran (DPMI) was also detected in most samples but only quantified in two of them (flounder/herring and mullet). The highest levels of HHCB and AHTN were found in mussels from Po estuary.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115001498 

 

Title: Toxic elements and speciation in seafood samples from different contaminated sites in Europe

Main Author(s): Ana Luísa Maulvault , Patrícia Anacleto, Vera Barbosa, Jens J. Sloth, Rie Romme Rasmussen, Alice Tediosi, Margarita Fernandez-Tejedor, Fredericus H.M. van den Heuvel, Michiel Kotterman and António Marques

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

 The presence of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), arsenic (TAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) was investigated in seafood collected from European marine ecosystems subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure, i.e. hotspot areas. Different species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, n=50; Chamelea gallina, n=50; Liza aurata, n=25; Platichthys flesus, n=25; Laminaria digitata, n=15; and Saccharina latissima, n=15) sampled in Tagus estuary, Po delta, Ebro delta, western Scheldt, and in the vicinities of a fish farm area (Solund, Norway), between September and December 2013, were selected to assess metal contamination and potential risks to seafood consumers, as well as to determine the suitability of ecologically distinct organisms as bioindicators in environmental monitoring studies. Species exhibited different elemental profiles, likely as a result of their ecological strategies, metabolism and levels in the environment (i.e. seawater and sediments). Higher levels of Cd (0.15–0.94 mg kg−1), Pb (0.37−0.89 mg kg−1), Co (0.48–1.1 mg kg−1), Cu (4.8–8.4 mg kg−1), Zn (75–153 mg kg−1), Cr (1.0–4.5 mg kg−1) and Fe (283–930 mg kg−1) were detected in bivalve species, particularly in M. galloprovincialis from Ebro and Po deltas, whereas the highest content of Hg was found in P. flesus (0.86 mg kg−1). In fish species, most Hg was organic (MeHg; from 69 to 79%), whereas lower proportions of MeHg were encountered in bivalve species (between 20 and 43%). The highest levels of As were found in macroalgae species L. digitata and S. latissima (41 mg kg−1 and 43 mg kg−1, respectively), with iAs accounting almost 50% of the total As content in L. digitata but not with S. latissima nor in the remaining seafood samples. This work highlights that the selection of the most appropriate bioindicator species is a fundamental step in environmental monitoring of each contaminant, especially in coastal areas. Furthermore, data clearly shows that the current risk assessment and legislation solely based on total As or Hg data is limiting, as elemental speciation greatly varies according to seafood species, thus playing a key role in human exposure assessment via food.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300839 

 

Title: Ostreopsis cf. ovata dynamics in the NW Mediterranean Sea in relation to biotic and abiotic factors

Main Author(s): Olga Carnicer, Carles Guallar  Karl B. Andree, Jorge Diogène and Margarita Fernández-Tejedor

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

An expansion of the distribution of Ostreopsis cf. ovata, a dinoflagellate which produces palytoxin-like compounds, has been reported in recent years. Economical and social interests are affected by blooms, as they are responsible for respiratory and skin problems in humans and may cause damage to marine organisms. In order to identify the most influential environmental factors that trigger proliferations of O. cf. ovata in the area of the adjacent shallow rocky coast of the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) a three-year survey was performed on the metaphytic microalgae community growing on the macrophytes Jania rubens and Corallina elongata. Small-size diatoms were more abundant than dinoflagellates; O. cf. ovata was identified as the only species present from the genus. Seawater temperature was the primary driver defining the ecological niche of O. cf. ovata. Freshwater and groundwater fluxes were more pronounced in southern than in northern sites, which may have resulted in a distinct O. cf. ovata spatial distribution, with the highest records of abundance and more frequent blooms in the north. In consequence, negative correlations between the abundance of O. cf. ovata and nitrate concentrations and significant positive correlation with salinity were observed. The temporal pattern of O. cf. ovata dynamics from mid-July to early-November is probably due to the fact that this species is observed only above a certain threshold temperature of seawater. Metaphytic cells of O. cf. ovata were smaller in the northern site than in the south, possibly as a result of an increase in cell division, coinciding with higher abundance, and this could be an indicator of favorable conditions. Toxicity in planktonic cells was negatively correlated with cell abundance in the water column, achieving maximum concentrations of 25 pg. PLTX eq cell−1.ng, as elemental speciation greatly varies according to seafood species, thus playing a key role in human exposure assessment via food.

 Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300670 

 

Title: Contribution to the risk characterization of ciguatoxins: LOAEL estimated from eight ciguatera fish poisoning events in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

Main Author(s): Virginie Hossen, Lucia Soliño, Patricia Leroy, Eric David, Pierre Velge, Sylviane Dragacci, Sophie Krys, Harold Flores Quintana, Jorge Diogène

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

From 2010 to 2012, 35 ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) events involving 87 individuals who consumed locally-caught fish were reported in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). For 12 of these events, the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) was indicated in meal remnants and in uncooked fish by the mouse bioassay (MBA). Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTXs) were confirmed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. Using a cell-based assay (CBA), and the only available standard Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), the lowest toxins level detected in fish samples causing CFP was 0.022 µg P-CTX-1 equivalent (eq.)·kg−1 fish. Epidemiological and consumption data were compiled for most of the individuals afflicted, and complete data for establishing the lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) were obtained from 8 CFP events involving 21 individuals. Based on toxin intakes, the LOAEL was estimated at 4.2 ng P-CTX-1 eq./individual corresponding to 48.4 pg P-CTX-1 eq. kg−1 body weight (bw). Although based on limited data, these results are consistent with the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion which indicates that a level of 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq. kg−1 fish, regardless of source, should not exert effects in sensitive individuals when consuming a single meal. The calculated LOAEL is also consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance levels for CTXs (0.1 µg C-CTX-1 eq. kg−1 and 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq. kg−1 fish).

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300840 

 

Title: Integrated risk index for seafood contaminants (IRISC): Pilot study in five European countries

Main Author(s): German Cano-Sancho, Isabelle Sioen, Griet Vandermeersch, Silke Jacobs, Johan Robbens, Martí Nadal, José L. Domingo

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

Consumption of seafood is one of the most relevant pathways of exposure to environmental pollutants present in food. The list of toxic compounds in seafood is very extensive, including heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to quantify the importance of the problem, tools to combine and simplify large data collections are mandatory for risk managers and decision-makers. In this study, the development of a prioritization setting focusing on chemical hazards taken up through seafood was aimed. For this purpose, the toxicity data of several chemicals was integrated with concentration and seafood consumption data, building an integrated risk index for seafood contaminants (IRISC) able to draw a map of risk for each chemical and family of chemicals. A pilot trial was performed on a sample of 74 pollutants, four seafood species and five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). The preliminary results revealed that Portugal and Spain presented the highest IRISC, while Belgium was the region with the lowest IRISC. The contribution of each group of contaminants to the IRISC was very similar among countries, with heavy metals being the major contributor, followed by PCBs, PCDD/Fs and endocrine disrupting compounds. When the contribution of different seafood species to the Risk Indexes (RIs) was compared, the results elucidated the high input from sardines, showing the highest rates (54.9–76.1) in the five countries. The IRISC provides a friendly approach to the chemical risk scene in Europe, establishing normalized prioritization criteria considering toxicity and consumption as well as concentration of each chemical.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115000778 

 

 Title: Exposure of the population of Catalonia (Spain) to musk fragrances through seafood consumption: Risk assessment

Main Author(s): Laura Trabalón, German Cano-Sancho, Eva Pocurull, Martí Nadal, José L. Domingo, Francesc Borrull

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115001243 

 

Title: Influence of bioaccessibility of total mercury, methyl-mercury and selenium on the risk/benefit associated to the consumption of raw and cooked blue shark (Prionace glauca)

Main Author(s): J. Matos, H.M. Lourenço, P. Brito, A.L. Maulvault, L.L. Martins, C. Afonso

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

This study aimed to identify the benefit and risk associated with raw and cooked blue shark consumption taking into account the bioaccessibility of Se, Hg and MeHg, by using in vitro digestion method. Selenium, Hg and MeHg levels were higher in cooked samples, particularly in grilled blue shark. Whereas Se bioaccessibility was above 83% in grilled samples, Hg and MeHg bioaccessibility was lower in grilled samples with values near 50%. In addition, all Se-Health Beneficial Values were negative and the molar MeHg:Se ratios were higher than one. The risk-benefit assessment yielded a maximum consumption of one yearly meal for raw or cooked blue shark, thus emphasizing the need to recommend the consumption of a wider variety of seafood species in a balanced and healthy diet.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300864 

 

Title: Benefits and risks associated with consumption of raw, cooked, and canned tuna (Thunnus spp.) based on the bioaccessibility of selenium and methylmercury

Main Author(s): C. Afonso, S. Costa, C. Cardoso, R. Oliveira, H.M. Lourenço, A. Viula, I. Batista, I. Coelho, M.L. Nunes

Title of Periodical or Series: Environmental Research (Special issue: Non-regulated environmental contaminants in seafood: contributions of the ECsafeSEAFOOD EU project)

Publication Date: November 2015

The Se, Hg, and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in raw, cooked (boiled and grilled), and canned tuna (Thunnus spp.) were determined before and after an in vitro digestion, thereby enabling the calculation of the respective bioaccessibility percentages. A risk–benefit evaluation of raw and canned tuna on the basis of the Se and MeHg data was performed. Selenium bioaccessibility was high in tuna, though slightly lower in canned than in raw products. Mercury levels were high in raw and cooked tuna. Hg bioaccessibility percentages were low (39–48%) in the cooked tuna and even lower (<20%) in canned tuna. For the bioaccessible fraction, all molar Se:MeHg ratios were higher than one (between 10 and 74). A probabilistic assessment of MeHg risk vs Se benefit showed that while a weekly meal of canned tuna presents very low risk, raw, boiled, and grilled tuna consumption should not exceed a monthly meal, at least, for pregnant and nursing women.

Link:www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115001425 

 

Title:  Detection of Tetrodotoxins in Puffer Fish by a Self-Assembled Monolayer-Based Immunoassay and Comparison with Surface Plasmon Resonance, LC-MS/MS, and Mouse Bioassay

Main Author(s): Reverté L, de la Iglesia P,del Río V, Campbell K, Elliott CT, Kawatsu K, Katikou P, Diogène J, and Campàs M

Title of Peridoical or Series: Analytical Chemistry

Publication Date: October 2015

The increasing occurrence of puffer fish containing tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the Mediterranean could represent a major food safety risk for European consumers and threaten the fishing industry. The work presented herein describes the development of a new enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (mELISA) based on the immobilization of TTX through dithiol monolayers self-assembled on maleimide plates, which provides an ordered and oriented antigen immobilization and favors the antigen?antibody affinity interaction. The mELISA was found to have a limit of detection (LOD) of TTX of 0.23 mg/kg of puffer fish matrix. The mELISA and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor previously developed were employed to establish the cross-reactivity factors (CRFs) of 5,6,11- trideoxy-TTX, 5,11-deoxy-TTX, 11-nor-TTX-6-ol, and 5,6,11-trideoxy- 4-anhydro-TTX, as well as to determine TTX equivalent contents in puffer fish samples. Results obtained by both immunochemical tools were correlated (R2 = 0.977). The puffer fish samples were also analyzed using liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the corresponding CRFs were applied to the individual TTX contents. Results provided by the immunochemical tools, when compared with those obtained by LC-MS/MS, showed a good degree of correlation (R2 = 0.991 and 0.979 for mELISA and SPR, respectively). The mouse bioassay (MBA) slightly overestimated the CRF adjusted TTX content of samples when compared with the data obtained from the other techniques. The mELISA has been demonstrated to be fit for the purpose for screening samples in monitoring programs and in research activities.

Link: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.analchem.5b02158 

 

Title: Prevalence of ciguatoxins in lionfish (Pterois spp.) from Guadeloupe, Saint Martin, and Saint Barthélmy Islands (Caribbean).

Main Author(s): Lucía Soliño, Saha Widgy, Anthony Pautonnier, Jean Turquet, Christopher R. Loeffler, Harold A. Flores Quintana, Jorge Diogène

Title of Peridoical or Series: Toxicon

Publication Date: August 2015

Lionfish (Pterois spp.) are invasive species that have recently spread throughout the Caribbean. Lionfish are available for purchase in local markets for human consumption in several islands of the region. We examined the prevalence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in lionfish from the French Antilles, a ciguatera-endemic region. The neuroblastoma-2a (N2a) cell assay was used to assess composite cytotoxicity in 120 fish samples collected from the surrounding waters of Guadeloupe (n = 60), Saint Barthélemy Islands (n = 55) and Saint Martin (n = 5). Twenty-seven of these samples exhibited CTX-like activity by the N2a assay. Ciguatoxin (CTX) was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple samples that presented highest composite toxicity levels by N2a. Those fish found to contain CTXs were all from Saint Barthélemy. Lionfish from Guadeloupe and Saint Martin did not exhibit toxin activity, although the sample size from Saint Martin was insufficient to draw any conclusions as to the incidence of CTXs. In this study, we provide information about the potential hazard of ciguatera associated with the consumption of lionfish from known endemic areas. We also demonstrate the utility of the cell-based assay combined with LC-MS/MS to assess activity and to provide structural confirmation of CTXs respectively.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026621

 

Title: Development of an ELISA for the Detection of Azaspiracid

Main Author(s): Samdal IA, Løvberg KE, Briggs LR, Kilcoyne J, Xu J, Forsyth CJ, and Miles CO

Title of Peridoical or Series: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Publication Date: August 2015

Azaspiracids (AZAs) are a group of biotoxins that cause food poisoning in humans. These toxins are produced by small marine dinoflagellates such as Azadinium spinosum and accumulate in shellfish. Ovine polyclonal antibodies were produced and used to develop an ELISA for quantitating AZAs in shellfish, algal cells, and culture supernatants. Immunizing antigens were prepared from synthetic fragments of the constant region of AZAs, while plate coating antigen was prepared from AZA-1. The ELISA provides a sensitive and rapid analytical method for screening large numbers of samples. It has a working range of 0.45–8.6 ng/mL and a limit of quantitation for total AZAs in whole shellfish at 57 ?g/kg, well below the maximum permitted level set by the European Commission. The ELISA has good cross-reactivity to AZA-1–10, -33, and -34 and 37-epi-AZA-1. Naturally contaminated Irish mussels gave similar results whether they were cooked or uncooked, indicating that the ELISA also detects 22-carboxy-AZA metabolites (e.g., AZA-17 and AZA-19). ELISA results showed excellent correlation with LC-MS/MS analysis, both for mussel extract spiked with AZA-1 and for naturally contaminated Irish mussels. The assay is therefore well suited to screening for AZAs in shellfish samples intended for human consumption, as well as for studies on AZA metabolism.

Link to Article: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02513

 

Title: Multi-residue method for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and some of their metabolites in bivalves

Title of Peridoical or Series: Talanta

Publication Date: May 2015

A fast, simple and robust method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 pharmaceuticals (including some major metabolites) in bivalve mollusks. The analytes belong to eight different therapeutic groups: antibiotics, psychiatric drugs, analgesics/anti-inflammatories, tranquilizer, calcium channel blockers, diuretic, and prostatic hyperplasia. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by solid phase extraction clean-up (SPE), and ultra performance liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPL–MS/MS) for the identification and quantification of the target analytes. It has been developed and validated in three different species of bivalves: Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster), Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel), and Chamelea gallina (striped venus clam). The majority of the compounds were extracted with a recovery between 40 and 115%. The developed analytical method allowed the determination of the compounds in the lower ng/g concentration levels. The relative standard deviation was under 12% for the intra-day and 20% inter-day analyses, respectively. Finally, the method was applied to oyster, clam and mussel samples collected from the Ebro delta, Spain. The most ubiquitous compounds detected were the psychiatric drug venlanfaxine and the antibiotic azithromycin, with the highest concentrations found in mussel (2.7 ng/g dw) and oyster (3.0 ng/g dw), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that azithromycin has been reported in environmental samples of marine biota.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039914014010182

 

Title: Brominated flame retardants and seafood safety: a review

Main Author(s): Cruz R, Cunha SC, Casal S.

Title of Peridoical or Series: Environment International

Publication Date: April 2015

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), frequently applied to industrial and household products to make them less flammable, are highly persistent in the environment and cause multi-organ toxicity in human and wildlife. Based on the review of BFRs presence in seafood published from 2004 to 2014, it is clear that such pollutants are not ideally controlled as the surveys are too restricted, legislation inexistent for some classes, the analytical methodologies diversified, and several factors as food processing and eating habits are generally overlooked. Indeed, while a seafood rich diet presents plenty of nutritional benefits, it can also represent a potential source of these environmental contaminants. Since recent studies have shown that dietary intake constitutes a main route of human exposure to BFRs, it is of major importance to review and enhance these features, since seafood constitutes a chief pathway for human exposure and biomagnification of priority environmental contaminants. In particular, more objective studies focused on the variability factors behind contamination levels, and subsequent human exposure, are necessary to support the necessity for more restricted legislation worldwide.

Link to Article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700249

 

Title: The novel ovatoxin-g and isobaric palytoxin (so far referred to as putative palytoxin) from Ostreopsis cf. ovata (NW Mediterranean Sea): structural insights by LC-high resolution MS(n.)

Main Author(s): García-Altares M, Tartaglione L, Dell'Aversano C, Carnicer O, de la Iglesia P, Forino M, Diogène J and Ciminiello P

Title of Peridoical or Series: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (ABC)

Publication Date: February 2015

Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata are a concern in the Mediterranean Sea, since this species produces a wide range of palytoxin-like compounds listed among the most potent marine toxins. This study focused on two analogs of palytoxin found in cultures of six strains of O. cf. ovata isolated from the south of Catalonia (NW Mediterranean Sea). In addition to some already known ovatoxins, our strains produced two minor compounds, ovatoxin-g and the so far called putative palytoxin, whose structures had not been elucidated before. Insufficient quantity of these compounds impeded a full nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structural elucidation; thus, we studied their structure in crude algal extracts through liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry(n) (LC-ESI-HRMS(n)) in positive ion mode. Under the used MS conditions, the molecules underwent fragmentation at many sites of their backbone and a large number of diagnostic fragment ions were identified. As a result, tentative structures were assigned to both ovatoxin-g and the putative palytoxin, the latter being identified as a palytoxin isomer and re-named as  isobaric palytoxin.

Link to article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25492088

 

Title: Contribution to the genus Ostreopsis in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean): molecular, morphologic and toxicity characterisation

Main Author(s): Carnicer O, Tunin-Ley A, Andree K.B, Turquet J, Diogène J and Fernández-Tejedor M

Title of Peridoical or Series: Cryptogamie, Algologie

Publication Date: February 2015

The toxic epi-benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis is distributed worldwide in coral reef ecosystems and temperate regions. There are nine species described to date based on morphological features. Some of them have been proved to be producers of palytoxin-like compounds, representing a threat to coastal marine organisms and human health. The taxonomy of the genus is currently under revision due to morphological similarities among species. The present study aims to provide additional information on morphology, 5.8S and ITS data and toxin content from thirty three strains isolated along the west coast of Reunion Island, in the Indian Ocean. Two morphotypes, non overlapping in size, were distinguishable: the small morphotype (DV = 53.5 ± 6.9 µm; W = 37.7 ± 5.6 µm) with a typical tear-drop shape and the large morphotype (DV = 103.9 ± 5.1 µm; W = 85.3 ± 6.9 µm) with a rounded shape. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of three genotypes. Within the small morphotype, two different species were identifided, O. cf. ovata and a cryptic species not previously characterized. The larger cells constituted a genetically homogeneous clade. Nucleotide divergence between this species and the one qualified by Sato et al., 2011 of Ostreopsis sp. 5 was relatively low (p < 0.088) and those two strains are likely to be the same species. Haemolytic analysis resulted in no palytoxin-like activity in any of the three species.

Link to article: http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.7872/crya.v36.iss1.2015.101

 

Title: Alternative methods for the detection of emerging marine toxins: Biosensors, biochemical assays and cell-based assays

Main Author(s): Reverté L, Soliño L, Carnicer O, Diogène J and Campàs M

Title of Peridoical or Series: Marine Drugs

Publication Date: December 2014

The emergence of marine toxins in water and seafood may have a considerable impact on public health. Although the tendency in Europe is to consolidate, when possible, official reference methods based on instrumental analysis, the development of alternative or complementary methods providing functional or toxicological information may provide advantages in terms of risk identification, but also low cost, simplicity, ease of use and high-throughput analysis. This article gives an overview of the immunoassays, cell-based assays, receptor-binding assays and biosensors that have been developed for the screening and quantification of emerging marine toxins: palytoxins, ciguatoxins, cyclic imines and tetrodotoxins. Their advantages and limitations are discussed, as well as their possible integration in research and monitoring programs.

Link to Article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431968

 

Title: Assessment of acylation routes and structural characterisation by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry of semi-synthetic acyl ester analogues of lipophilic marine toxins

Main Author(s): de la Iglesia P, Fonollosa E, Diogène J

Title of Peridoical or Series: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry

Publication Date: December 2014

Esterification is one of the most important metabolic routes of lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish. In this work we assessed several chemical acylation reactions aimed at obtaining acyl ester analogues via partial synthesis from the free toxins. The procedures developed including sensitive and selective methods based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) can be applied to obtain reference materials that may be used as analytical standards (internal/external) for method development and calibration, as well as to perform toxicological in vitro and in vivo studies. Acylation systems involved both anhydrous and non-anhydrous fatty acid or acid halides as a source of the acyl radical, and several catalysers of the reaction. A series of mass spectrometric experiments involving product ion scans and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) were used to confirm the identity and to elucidate the fragmentation pathways of the synthesised products.Reaction yields regarding reaction time and temperature were examined at sub-nmol scale for the acylation system consisting of palmitic anhydride and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) in anhydrous pyridine, showing the best conditions at 75 °C for 60 min, 75 °C for 120 min and 100 °C for 270 min for cyclic imines, azaspiracid-1 and pectenotoxin-2, respectively. The esterification approach was verified at a larger scale for the esterification of gymnodimine-A (GYM-A), which kept a good yield >90% for the synthesis of 10-O-palmitoyl-GYM-A. Acyl ester analogues of lipophilic marine toxins have been synthesised and their structure elucidated by LC/MS/MS. For acyl ester analogues identical to natural metabolites, the procedures developed have potential to be applied for the semi-synthesis of metabolites in a sustainable, scalable and controlled way, avoiding extensive and tedious isolation and purification procedures from naturally contaminated shellfish. For the semi-synthetic esters structurally different than those found in shellfish, they may have applicability as internal standards for accurate quantifications of natural metabolites present in complex matrices.

Link to Article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25366407

 

Title: Confirmation of pinnatoxins and spirolides in shellfish and passive samplers from Catalonia (Spain) by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole and high-resolution hybrid tandem mass spectrometry

Main Author(s): García-Altares M, Casanova A, Bane V, Diogène J, Furey A and de la Iglesia P.

Title of Peridoical or Series: Marine Drugs

Publication Date: June 2014

Cyclic imines are lipophilic marine toxins that bioaccumulate in seafood. Their structure comprises a cyclic-imino moiety, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have not been linked yet to human poisonings and are not regulated in Europe, although the European Food Safety Authority requires more data to perform a conclusive risk assessment for consumers. This work presents the first detection of pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) in Spain and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in shellfish from Catalonia (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Cyclic imines were found at low concentrations (2 to 60 µg/kg) in 13 samples of mussels and oysters (22 samples analyzed). Pinnatoxin G has been also detected in 17 seawater samples (out of 34) using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking devices (0.3 to 0.9 µg/kg-resin). Pinnatoxin G and SPX-1 were confirmed with both low and high resolution (<2 ppm) mass spectrometry by comparison of the response with that from reference standards. For other analogs without reference standards, we applied a strategy combining low resolution MS with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer for a fast and reliable screening, and high resolution MS LTQ Orbitrap® for unambiguous confirmation. The advantages and limitations of using high resolution MS without reference standards were discussed.

Link to Article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960460

 

Title: Risk – benefit perception and consumption of seafood in European consumers

Main Author(s): Silke Jacobs, Isabelle Sioen, Stefaan De Henauw, Núria Tous, Ana Luísa Maulvault, Gabriella Fait, Federico Cardona Pons, and Wim Verbeke

Title of Peridoical or Series: Archives of Public Health

Publication Date: June 2014

Seafood consumption entails important potential health benefits such as lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, seafood may also be a source of environmental contaminants for which no maximum limits are set by authorities yet (i.e. priority contaminants). Exposure to these contaminants could imply health risks, especially for the more vulnerable consumer groups, such as pregnant women and children. Because of recent media attention to these contaminants, revealing the benefit and risk perception of European consumers toward seafood is of particular interest.

For this purpose, a web based survey was performed in 2013 in five European countries, namely Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Spain, and Portugal (n=2917; age 18 to 75 years; 1451 women and 1466 men). Risk and benefit perception statements were scored on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from totally disagree to totally agree, forming a construct of seven and three items, respectively. Furthermore, consumers’ concern about seafood safety was also measured on a 7-point Likert scale.

The perceived benefits of consuming seafood outweigh the perceived risks among European consumers. In general, the mean score amounts 5.43 (± 1.34) for the benefit-construct versus 2.75 (± 1.50) for the risk-construct. But, importantly, a certain concern about seafood safety has to be underlined. More in particular, 42% of the participants are concerned about the safety of seafood and 39% are concerned about the amount of environmental contaminants in seafood. It should also be noted that Portugal has the highest seafood consumption and Belgium the lowest seafood consumption with a mean self-reported consumption of 487 and 191 gram per week, respectively. Interestingly, the Portuguese consumers indicated the lowest mean score on risk perception and the highest mean score on benefit perception, both significantly different from the mean scores of the other four countries. In addition, a weak negative association is measured between risk perception and consumption (r=-0.145, p<0.001) and a weak positive association is measured between benefit perception and consumption (r=0.214, p<0.001).

Because of a potential link between risk-benefit perception and seafood consumption, it is of great interest to determine the relationship between the risk-benefit perception and consumption patterns in further analyses.

 

Title: In vitro labelling of muscle type nicotinic receptors using a fluorophore-conjugated pinnatoxin F derivative

Main Author(s): Hellyer S.D., Selwood A.I., van Ginkel R, Munday R, Sheard P, Miles, C.O., Rhodesb L and Kerr S.

Title of Peridoical or Series: Toxicon

Publication Date: September 2013

Fluorescent molecules are regularly utilised to study ligand–receptor interactions. Many ligands for nicotinic receptors have been conjugated with fluorophores to study receptor kinetics, recycling and ligand binding characteristics. These include small agonist molecules, as well as large peptidic antagonists. However, no small molecule antagonists have been investigated using this method. Pinnatoxin F is a newly discovered non-peptidic muscle type nicotinic receptor antagonist produced by the marine dinoflagellate species Vulcanodinium rugosum. This molecule has the potential for conjugation to a fluorophore, allowing subsequent visualisation of interactions with nicotinic receptors. Pinnatoxin F was modified by addition of diaminopolyether spacers, to which a fluorophore (VivoTag® 645) was conjugated. The fluorescent pinnatoxin was then applied to muscle sections from thy1-YFP-H transgenic mice, which express YFP in motor nerves, to allow direct visualization of fluorescent binding at the neuromuscular junction. The addition of both the diaminopolyether spacer and the VivoTag® 645 reduced the potency of pinnatoxin F, as evidenced by a reduction in in vitro neuromuscular blocking activity and in vivo toxicity. Despite this reduced potency, the fluorescent molecule selectively labelled endplate regions in thy1-YFP mouse muscle sections and this labelling was inhibited by pre-exposure of muscle sections to native pinnatoxin F or the nicotinic antagonist (alpha)-bungarotoxin. This study proves nicotinic receptor binding activity of pinnatoxin F and is the first example of a fluorophore-conjugated small-molecule antagonist for nicotinic receptors. These results indicate the potential for other small-molecule nicotinic receptor antagonists to be fluorescently labelled and used as probes for specific nicotinic receptor subtypes.

Link to Article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041010114001470

 

Title: Development of a liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry procedure for determination of endocrine disrupting compounds in fish from Mediterranean rivers

Main Author(s): Hellyer S.D., Selwood A.I., van Ginkel R, Munday R, Sheard P, Miles, C.O., Rhodesb L and Kerr S.

Title of Peridoical or Series: Toxicon

Publication Date: September 2013

A new, sensitive and rapid method based on QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of nineteen endocrine disruptors (EDCs) and related compounds belonging to different classes in various fish species. Matrix effect on the analytical performance was evaluated, and thus, internal sample calibration was chosen as the most appropriate approach when analyzing such complex matrices as biota. The procedure provided adequate recoveries in the range from 40% to 103% for most of the compounds, low method detection limits (MDLs) in the range from 0.002 to 3.09ng/g for fish homogenates and high accuracy <20%. The developed method was applied for the analysis of target compounds in homogenates of different fish species from four impacted Mediterranean rivers: Ebro, Llobregat, Júcar and Guadalquivir. Eleven out of the nineteen target EDCs were found at least once in fish homogenates. Llobregat was identified as the most polluted river, where high concentrations were measured in fish homogenates especially for bisphenol A (223.91±11.51ng/g). Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), caffeine, and methyl and benzyl paraben were found in fish from the four river basins.

Link to Article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23890552

 

Title: Analysis of multi-class pharmaceuticals in fish tissues by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

Main Author(s): Huerta B, Jakimska A, Gros M, Rodriguez-Mozaz S and Barcelo D

Title of Peridoical or Series: Journal of Chromatography A

Publication Date: May 2013

A new sensitive method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and purification by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) prior to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) was developed for the determination in fish homogenate, liver and muscle of twenty pharmaceuticals compounds and metabolites from seven commonly used therapeutic families. An extensive matrix effect evaluation was performed in order to select the best approach when analyzing such complex matrices. Limits of detection (MDLs) for the target compounds were in the range of 0.03–0.50 ng/g for fish homogenate, 0.01–0.42 ng/g for fish muscle, and 0.08–0.98 ng/g for fish liver. The method was applied to fish tissues of eleven fish species from four heavily impacted Mediterranean rivers. Nine compounds from five therapeutic families were measured at concentrations higher than MDLs. Highest levels were found in trout liver, with a maximum concentration of 18 ng/g for carbamazepine, whereas the most ubiquitous compound was diclofenac.

Link to Article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967313004238

 

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